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  • Introduction on Ergonomic
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  • Laptop Tips And Fixes
  • Laptop Products And Accessories
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Wrist Tendonitis
  • Medial Epicondylitis
  • Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow
  • Trapezius Myalgia
  • Lower Back Pain
  • Myopia
  • Presbyopia
  • Astigmatism
  • ERGONOMIC DISCOMFORTS AND ITS CAUSES
  • Back Injuries
  • Safety for Smartphone
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    What is Ergonomics?

    • The science of fitting the work space to the human body in order to reduce injury risk.
    • In other words, making the work space as comfortable & user-friendly as possible.

    Posture & Activity

    • Use the positioning suggestions to help you find a good posture that feels comfortable and supportive.
    • Posture should be fluid and not stiff. When working, flow out from this position of good posture to perform activity and then return to it when the activity is completed.
    • It is good for circulation to shift your movements and "fidget".
    • Use the activity suggestions to minimize the stress of repetitive activity on the body.

    Positioning in the Chair

    • You should have a comfortable work chair.
    • The chair should have a 5-point base for stability & safety.
    • Your feet should be flat on the floor – Use a foot rest if necessary.
    • Your knees should be slightly lower than your hips.
    • You can adjust the pan of the seat to tilt slightly forward or back for comfort. Change throughout the day.

    There should be 2 inches clearance form the edge of the chair to your knees.

    • The back rest should support your lower spine.
    • Keep your shoulders relaxed.
    • Hold your head directly over shoulders. Don't let your head fall forward.
    • Hold your shoulders directly over the elbows. Don't let your shoulders round forward.
    • If you choose to use arm-rests to support the forearms and relieve shoulder strain, they should be padded.
    • The elbows should be slightly open greater than 90 degrees.
    • Do not lean on the elbows or wrists.
    • Wrists should be positioned straight (neutral).
    • Adjust your chair each day so that it fits you, especially if you have a multi-user station.
    • The chair should face your work activity. Do not twist to reach or while working.

    The Keyboard

    • The keyboard, 10-key or mouse should be positioned comfortably so that your arms are relaxed.
    • Avoid excessive reaching for the keyboard or mouse.
    • Use function keys to eliminate keystrokes.
    • Maintain a neutral wrist position.
    • Wrist rests should be a guide, not a rest. Float over the wrist rest and only rest down during typing breaks.
    • Do not stretch the fingers to reach keys. Move from the shoulders.
    • For functions requiring two keys to activate, use both hands rather than stretching two fingers on one hand.
    • Occasionally use the index and middle fingers to activate keys (hunt and peck method) to rest the hands and slow down activity.
    • Use a light touch on the keyboard.
    • Keep the fingers and thumb relaxed, almost as if they are curved gently around a large ball.
    • Keep your fingernails short. Long fingernails change typing style placing increased stress on the small muscles of the hands.
    • Consider placing the keyboard at a downward tilt with the keys closest to your body slightly higher than the keys farthest away from your body to reduce arm tension. This position assists in keeping the wrist in a more neutral position and reduces arm tension.

    The Mouse

    • Hold the mouse as loosely as possible.
    • Use the lightest touch possible when clicking the mouse.
    • Don't hold the pinky up. Gently cup the mouse with all fingers.
    • Don't rest your wrist or forearm on the desk while moving the mouse.
    • Move from the shoulder while keeping the wrist in the neutral position rather than swiveling the wrist.

    Writing

    • Use a pen with a larger circumference.
    • Hold the pen lightly.
    • •Use a felt tip pen or a roller ball to reduce friction.
    • Use a pen whose barrel has some texture. A slippery barrel requires more force when writing.
    • Maintain your wrist in as neutral a position as possible and let your hand glide over the table with the movement coming from the shoulder.
    • Using a 3-ring binder as a writing surface with the wider edge closer to the body and the narrower edge closer to your elbow will put the forearm in a more neutral position and may ease forearm strain.
    • Try special pens or alternative writing styles (for example, the pen held between the index and middle fingers) to relieve thumb stress.
    • Writing continuously is a difficult activity for the hands. Take frequent breaks.
    • Rotate methods so you are not holding one particular position for any length of time.

    Phone Use

    • Do not hold the phone to the ear by cradling it between your ear and a raised shoulder.
    • Use a speaker phone or a headset.
    • Place the phone on the same side of the desk as the ear that is used for listening.

    The Computer Monitor

    • •The monitor should be positioned directly in front of the keyboard.
    • The top of the screen should be at eye level.
    • Screen should be about 1 arm’s length distant with slight tilt (as if reading a newspaper).
    • If you type from copy, attach a copy holder to the monitor.
    • If you type from copy all the time, attach a copy holder to each side of the monitor and alternate pages to reduce neck strain.

    Reaching & Lifting

    • Reach for objects by turning the body and facing the object. Don't twist in the chair to perform activity or reach for objects.
    • Use both hands when reaching for heavy objects and face the object squarely.
    • Lift with the palm up. Support the object from underneath.
    • Keep frequently used objects within your immediate work space.
      • Arms length distance in reach
      • Between eye-level and hip-level

    • Place the phone on the same side of the desk as the ear that is used for listening.

    Reducing Eye Discomfort

    • Adjust color and contrast on the monitor so that characters are clear and sharp.
    • •Dust the monitor regularly.
    • Replace or repair a screen that flickers.
    • •Reduce glare.
      • Use an anti-glare screen if necessary.
      • Position the monitor perpendicular to the window so that glare is reduced.
    • Take a break and focus on distant objects frequently.
    • Relax the eyes by rubbing the palms together briskly, then placing the warm palms gently over the eyes for 30 seconds.
    • Make sure that lighting is comfortable and appropriate for work tasks.
    • Use task lighting instead of overhead lights if that helps to increase comfort and reduce glare.
    • If you wear bifocals, you may be at increased risk of injury due to awkward neck positioning needed to look through the various prescription sections. Consider purchasing a pair of glasses designed specifically for computer use.

    Arranging Work Activities

    • Reduce the speed and the force of movements.
    • Use the appropriate tool for the job. Use a power tool if possible. Make sure tools are in good shape and, if a cutting tool, that the blade is sharp.
    • Use leverage to reduce the force needed.
    • Alternate tasks throughout the day. Avoid performing any one activity for extended periods of time.

    Breaks

    • Space breaks evenly throughout the day.
    • Take a mini-break for every 30 minutes of repetitive activity. Return a phone call, walk to the copy machine, get a drink of water.
    • For a posture change, stand up when answering the phone or talking with co-workers.
    • Take your mid-morning, lunch and mid-afternoon breaks. Studies have proven that those who take breaks are more comfortable, more productive, and less painful than those who skip breaks.
    • Get up and move during breaks.
    • Don't perform hand intensive hobby activity during breaks.

    A Comfortable Work Environment

    • Reduce clutter. Clutter causes tension and stress and impedes optimal positioning of objects.
    • Organize your workstation with materials placed in locations based on priority, frequency of use and ease of handling.
    • Do not place heavy items above your head but closer to your body for easy lifting.
    • Reduce noise. Noise increases stress level. Pad noisier items. Place the printer in a noise reduction box. Lower the volume on speakers, monitors, etc.
    • Have a comfortable temperature in the room or dress appropriately to maintain body warmth. Cold temperatures increase muscle tension and can make your more susceptible to injury.
    • –Do not sit directly under air vents; if necessary, direct the flow of air away from your desk.

    INJURY PREVENTION & ERGONOMICS - FOR SPECIFIC INJURIES

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    • Maintain a neutral wrist position; Avoid bending, extending or twisting the wrist during activities
    • Minimize repetition; Periodically rest the hands briefly during repetitive or stressful activities
    • Slow down the activity
    • Use the least amount of force necessary to do the job
    • Use a light grip on tools, pens, the mouse
    • Use the right tool for the job
    • Find tools or gadgets that help make the job easier
    • Avoid using a sustained pinch or grip, especially if the wrist is not in a neutral position
    • Avoid positioning the wrist in a bent position (towards the palm of the hand) for any length of time (for example, when sleeping)
    • Alternate work activities
    • Alternate hands during the work activity if possible
    • Work from the shoulder and don't isolate finger or wrist movement

    Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

    • Avoid leaning on the inside edge of the elbow
    • Avoid leaning the forearm against hard or sharp edges (such as a table or desk edge)
    • Avoid holding the elbow in a bent position for any length of time (for example, use a head set if you will be speaking on the phone for any length of time)
    • Pad your workbench, desk surfaces and chair arms
    • Avoid prolonged bending of the wrist during activities
    • Minimize repetition and periodically rest the arms during repetitive or stressful activity
    • Slow down the activity
    • Use the least amount of force necessary to do the job
    • Use a light grip on tools, pens, the mouse
    • Use the right tool for the job
    • Find tools or gadgets that help make the job easier
    • Alternate hands during the work activity if possible
    • Work from the shoulder and don't isolate wrist or elbow movements

    Epicondylitis (Tennis & Golfer's Elbow)

    • Avoid repetitive wrist bending and straightening
    • Avoid repetitive forearm rotation (palm-up/palm down movements)
    • Avoid repetitive, forceful gripping
    • Avoid lifting with the palm down and the wrist held back (for example, holding suitcases or grocery bags)
    • Use both hands while lifting to share the load between the arms
    • Try to lift with the palms up (as if you are scooping up the object)
    • Avoid forceful push and pull activities with the elbow held straight
    • Minimize repetition and periodically rest the arms during repetitive or stressful activity
    • Slow down the activity
    • Use the least amount of force necessary to do the job
    • Use a light grip on tools, pens, the mouse
    • Position the mouse appropriately. Don't reach forward or to the side when using the mouse.
    • Use the right tool for the job
    • Find tools or gadgets that help make the job easier
    • Alternate hands during the work activity if possible

    DeQuervain's Tenosynovitis

    • Use the power grip (for example, holding an object with all the fingers in a loose grip) instead of using a pinch
    • Use the force of the upper arm instead of isolated wrist movements (for example, while fastening nuts and bolts)
    • Work with the wrist in a neutral position
    • Avoid holding the thumb in the palm of the hand while bending the wrist towards the palm or towards the small finger side of the hand
    • Minimize repetition and periodically rest the arms during repetitive or stressful activity
    • Slow down the activity
    • Use the least amount of force necessary to do the job
    • Use a light grip on tools, pens, the mouse
    • Use the right tool for the job
    • Find tools or gadgets that help make the job easier
    • Alternate hands during the work activity if possible
    • Work from the shoulder and don't isolate wrist or elbow movement

    Trigger Finger

    • Avoid repetitive grasping and releasing of the hand
    • Avoid sustained grasp
    • Use the right tool for the job
    • Purchase tools with padded, comfortable handles
    • Minimize repetition and periodically rest the arms during repetitive or stressful activity
    • Slow down the activity
    • Use the least amount of force necessary to do the job
    • Use a light grip on tools, pens, the mouse
    • Find tools or gadgets that help make the job easier
    • Alternate hands during the work activity if possible
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